User Tools

Site Tools


timelines:mission_list

Eyes Turned Skywards : Mission List

This page is intended to record prominent missions and mission events from the Eyes Turned Skyward timeline. It is a work in progress, but the intention is to have it complete to the end of Part I soon.

Apollo Program

John F. Kennedy Program “to bring a Man to moon and back, before end of this decade”

Apollo One

Launched: Not, schedule for springtime , 1967

LV: Saturn 1B

Spacecraft: Apollo Block I

Commander: Virgil I. “Gus” Grissom †

Command Module Pilot: Edward H. “Ed” White †

Second Pilot: Roger B. Chaffee †

Also known as Apollo Saturn-204 or Apollo 4 (inofficial)

Had to be Test of Apollo Hardware Block I in Orbit for 14 days, with 10 scientific experiments on board

During last launch exercise on January 27, 1967. A fire erupt inside Apollo capsule killing the crew, the investigation and redesign of hardware, delay the Apollo program for 20 months.

Apollo 7-10

Test of Apollo Block II and Lunar Module in Earth orbit and Moon orbit

Apollo 11

Launched: July 16, 1969

LV: Saturn V

Spacecraft: Apollo Block II, LM-5

Commander: Neil Armstrong

Command Module Pilot: Michael Collins

LM Pilot: Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin

First Time in mankind history, two humans land on Moon in Sea of Tranquility and stay for 22 hours.

Apollo 12

Launched: November 14, 1969

LV: Saturn V

Spacecraft: Apollo Block II, LM-6

Commander: Pete Conrad,

Command Module Pilot: Richard F. Gordon

LM Pilot: Alan L. Bean

Saturn V hit by lighting during take off. Precision landing near Surveyor 3 lunar lander probe.

Apollo 13

Launched: November 14, 1969

LV: Saturn V

Spacecraft: Apollo Block II, LM-7

Commander: James A. Lovell,

Command Module Pilot: Jack Swigert

LM Pilot: Fred Haise

Consider as a Routine Mission, it turn 56 hours after launch into matter of life and death as Lox tank in SM explode !

The Crew survived and return save to Earth thanks to Lunar Module, used as Lifeboat

Apollo 18

Final mission in the Apollo Program. Targeted at Hyginus crater and rille, suspected to be of volcanic origin (a supposition proven by the mission). Crew: * Commander: Richard F. Gordon, Jr. * Command Module Pilot: Vance D. Brand * Lunar Module Pilot: Harrison Schmitt

Thus, it was also the first time a geologist walked on the Moon (as Joe Engle was the Lunar Module Pilot for Apollo 17). Detailed in Post 5.

Skylab Program

Skylab 1

Launched: January, 1974

LV: Saturn V

Spacecraft: Skylab space station

Unmanned flight

Launch of the Skylab station. During ascent, a failure of the micrometeroid shield tears off the shield, one entire solar array, and damages the other such as to prevent its deployment. The Skylab 2 crew launch is delayed while temporary work-arounds are developed, in the meantime ground controllers fight a valiant battle to preserve power and manuevering propellants while preventing the wounded station from overheating. See Skylab page for full details.

Skylab 2

Launched: January, 1974

LV: Saturn 1B

Spacecraft: Apollo Block II

Commander: Pete Conrad

Command Module Pilot: Paul Weitz

Scientist-Pilot: Joseph Kernan

Also known as SLM-1

The first crew to fly to Skylab, the Skylab 2 crew's launch was delayed while work-around procedures were developed to save the station.

Skylab 3

Launched: March, 1974

LV: Saturn 1B

Spacecraft: Apollo Block II

Commander: Alan Bean

Command Module Pilot: Jack Lousma

Scientist-Pilot: Owen Garriot

Also known as SLM-2

Skylab 4

Launched: July, 1974

LV: Saturn 1B

Spacecraft: Apollo Block II

Commander: Ron Evans

Command Module Pilot: William Pogue

Scientist-Pilot: Edwin Gibson

Also known as SLM-3

AARDV-1

Patch image created by Michel Van, used with permission

Launched: Jan 1976

LV: Saturn 1B

Spacecraft: AARDV-1

Unmanned spacecraft

Free-flight test of the Aardvark resupply vehicle. Fully succesful in demonstrating capabilities, cleared the way for Skylab 5 mission to go ahead.

Skylab 5

Launched: May, 1976

LV: Saturn 1B

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III

Commander: Rusty Schweickart

Command Module Pilot: Don Lind

Flight Scientist: William Lenoir

Also known as SLM-4

Final manned mission to the Skylab station, demonstrating techniques needed for upcoming Spacelab missions, including the Apollo Block III crew vehicle, resupply with the Aardvark spacecraft, and use of the Aardvark thrusters for control of the station's orbit (used in this case to conduct controlled deorbit of Skylab after the crew's departure). Also participated in bicentennial celebration events on July 4, 1976.

AARDV-2

Patch created by Michel Van, used with permission

Launched: June, 1976

LV: Saturn 1B

Spacecraft: AARDV-2

Unmanned flight

Also known as Spacelab 5A

Second flight of the Aardvark reupply vehicle, demonstrating operations with the Skylab station in preparation for use to resupply and reboost the Spacelab station.

Spacelab Program

Saturn 1C Demo Flight

Launched: July, 1977

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: None, mass simulator

Unmanned flight

The first flight of the Saturn 1C in July 1977 was the final step in preparing for the Spacelab program, proving the launch vehicle that was to be at the core of Spacelab operations. The vehicle succesfully placed a 20 metric ton mass simulator into the intended orbit, which was specifically designed to allow the simulated payload to de-orbit rapidly and thus avoid creating further space debris.

Spacelab 1

Launched: April, 1978

LV: Saturn V

Spacecraft: Spacelab space station

Unmanned flight

Launch of the Spacelab space station aboard the final Saturn V remaining in NASA inventory. Followed on the same day by the launch of the first Spacelab crew mission (see Spacelab 2). For full details, see the Spacelab page.

Spacelab 2

Launched: April, 1978

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III

Commander: Vance Brand

Command Module Pilot: Richard Truly

Flight Scientist: F. Story Murgrave

Also known as SLM-5

First manned mission to the Spacelab station, activating and checking out the workshop in preparation for the ASTP-2 joint mission between the US and USSR.

Spacelab 3

Launched: July, 1978

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III

Commander: John Young

Command Module Pilot: Robert Crippen

Flight Scientist: F. Karl Henize

Also known as SLM-6

The American half of the ASTP-2 mission, sharing their time on the Spacelab station with the Soviet crew of Soyuz 30.

AARDV-3

Launched: August, 1978

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: AARDV-3

Unmanned flight

Third flight of the Aardvark reupply vehicle, first to resupply the Spacelab station. Initial processing carried out by ASTP-2 crew. Final processing and undocking/entry overseen by Spacelab 4 crew.

Spacelab 4

Launched: November, 1978

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III

Commander: Stuart Roosa

Command Module Pilot: Gordon Fullerton

Flight Scientist: William Thornton

Also known as SLM-7

Third manned mission to the Spacelab station. Demonstrates modular assembly, supervising the addition of the Airlock Module at the zenith port of the Spacelab MDA, replacing the Docking Module that was removed by the retreating Soyuz 30 spacecraft at the conclusion of joint ASTP-2 operations. Also oversees setup of the station for long-term 5-person operations as Block III+ Apollo has become part of plans and (as the first Spacelab mission not heavily loaded) features in several PR exercises, including cross-promotion with cast and crew of Star Trek: The New Voyages such as DeForest Kelly meeting with William Thornton.

AARDV-4

Launched: December, 1979

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: AARDV-4 (bus), Airlock Module (payload)

Unmanned flight

Fourth flight of the AARDV vehicle, first use in role as bus for modular station components. Airlock Module fitted with adaptor in place of Aardvark pressurized logistics module. Module docked to Spacelab zenith port by Spacelab 4 crew, bus detatched and allowed to destructively enter the atmosphere in December.

Spacelab 5

Launched: Jan, 1979

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III

Commander: Joseph Engle

Command Module Pilot: Karol Bobko

Flight Scientist: Wubbo Ockels (ESA)

Also known as SLM-8

On this mission, Ockels becomes the first ESA astronaut to fly in space.

AARDV-5

Launched: March, 1978

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: AARDV-5

Unmanned flight

Fourth flight of the Aardvark vehicle, second to resupply the Spacelab station. Initial processing carried out by Spacelab 5 crew. Final processing and undocking/entry overseen by Spacelab 6 crew.

Spacelab 6

Launched: May, 1979

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III

Commander: Fred Haise

Command Module Pilot: Robert OVermeyer

Flight Scientist: Joseph Allen

Also known as SLM-9

Spacelab 7

Launched: September, 1979

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III

Commander: Jack Lousma

Command Module Pilot: Henry Hartsfield

Flight Scientist: Ulf Merbold

Also known as SLM-10

Second major instance of modular assembly, with the launch of the European Research Module, the major ESA contribution to the station. Ulf Merbold is first German ESA astronaut and first West German to fly to space.

AARDV-6

Launched: October, 1979

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: AARDV-6 (bus), European Research Module (payload)

Unmanned flight

Sixth flight of the AARDV vehicle, second use in role as bus for modular station components. European Research Module (ERM) fitted with adaptor in place of Aardvark pressurized logistics module. Module docked to Spacelab forward port by Spacelab 7 crew, bus detatched and allowed to destructively enter the atmosphere in December.

Spacelab 8

Launched: January, 1980

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III

Commander: Paul Weitz

Command Module Pilot: David Peterson

Flight Scientist: Phillip Chapman

Also known as SLM-11

Final flight of the Block III, phased out after this mission in favor of the Block III+.

Spacelab 9

Launched: ???, 1980

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Commander: Robert Crippen

Command Module Pilot: Donald Hunt

Flight Scientist: Nigel Wood

Also known as SLM-12

First flight of Block III+ and with Nigel Wood the first Britain in space.

AARDV-7

Launched: August , 1980

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: AARDV-7

resupply mission to Spacelab

Spacelab 10

Launched: September, 1980

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Commander: ???

Command Module Pilot: Don Hunt

Flight Scientist #1: Jean-Loup Chrètien.

Flight Scientist #2: ???

Flight Scientist #3: ???

Also known as SLM-13 aka the Garlic incident

First flight of Block III+ with 5 persons and with the first French in space. the Mission is know as the Garlic incident because Jean-Loup Chrètien use of garlic in his food and problems of Spacecraft air filters could not handle it.

Spacelab 11

Launched January, 1981

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Commander: ???

Command Module Pilot: ???

Flight Scientist #1: Peggy Barnes.

Flight Scientist #2: ???

Flight Scientist #3: ???

Also known as SLM-14

Peggy Barnes becomes first US woman in space and First EVA by a Woman in space

Spacelab 12

Launched May?, 1981

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Crew: ??

Spacelab 13

Launched September, 1981

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Crew: F. Story Musgrave

Musgrave will fly a long-duration mission.

Spacelab 14

Launched January, 1982?

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Crew: Katsuyama Hideki

Hideki flies a short-stay mission as part of the Spaceflight Participation Program, returning with the Spacelab 13 CM.

Spacelab 15

Launched May, 1982

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Crew: ??

Dr. Story Musgrave returns to Earth following a long-duration (8 months) stay on Spacelab.

Spacelab 17

Launched January, 1983?

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Crew: ??

Includes Japan’s second astronaut?

Spacelab 18

Launched May, 1983?

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Crew: ??

Includes Japan’s second astronaut?

Spacelab 19

Launched September, 1983?

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Crew: ??

Includes Japan’s second astronaut?

Spacelab 20

Launched January, 1984?

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Crew: ??

Spacelab 21

Launched May, 1984?

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Crew: Laura Kinsley? + 4 others

Kinsley spends a short-stay on Spacelab as part of the Spaceflight Participation Program, returning with the Spacelab 20 CM? She is the first teacher in space and the first US non-professional astronaut.

Spacelab 26

Launched January, 1986?

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Crew: ??

Includes Turkey’s first astronaut.

Spacelab 27

Launched May, 1986

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Crew: Jim Lehrer + 4 others

Lehrer becomes the first journalist in space. He is on a short-stay, returning with the Spacelab 26 CM. Spacelab 27 mission extended to October 6th, 1986 to mothball the station following the Spacelab 28 launch failure and subsequent grounding of Saturn 1C.

Spacelab 28

Launched September 19th, 1986

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Commander: Don Hunt

Pilot: ??

Mission Specialists: 3.

Launch failure. Launch Escape System successfully activates, saving all five crewmembers. Saturn 1C is grounded.

Spacelab 29

Launched February, 1987

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Crew: ??

Return to flight of Saturn 1C following the Spacelab 28 failure. Reactivation of Spacelab after 3 months unscrewed.

Spacelab 30

Launched ??, 1987

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Crew: ??

Spacelab 31

Launched ??, 1987

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Commander: ??

Pilot: Chris Valente?

Mission Specialist: Peggy Barnes? + 2 more

??In-space testing of the new A9 and AX-4 spacesuits by Valente and Barnes. Barnes sets a new record for career spacewalk duration.

Spacelab 32

Launched November, 1987?

LV: Saturn 1C

Spacecraft: Apollo Block III+

Commander: Don Hunt

Pilot: ??

Mission Specialist: ?? (1 only)

Final Spacelab mission, crew of 3. Mission included docking of AARDV-14, the last Block-I AARDV launched on the first Saturn M02. Mission ends in January 1988 with the destructive de-orbit of Spacelab over the Indian Ocean.

Freedom Program

The following is a summary of the early manned and unmanned missions for the assembly of Space Station Freedom

Challenger + SSRMS1

Launched November, 1988

LV: Saturn Multibody H03

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Challenger HSM and SSRMS1

Uncrewed. First launch of the Freedom project.

Freedom Expedition 1

Launched November, 1988

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

Commander: Jack Bailey

Crew: Gerald Mitchell + 3 others

Node 1 + SSRMS 2

Node 1 Unity

Launched November, 1988

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Node 1 “Unity”, SSRMS 2

uncrewed

P1 Truss

Launched January, 1989

LV: Saturn Multibody H03

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: P1 Truss

Uncrewed

Freedom Expedition 2

Launched April, 1989

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

Commander: Nick Wallace Pilot: Ryan Little

Mission Specialist: Beverly McDowell

Mission Specialist: Josh Carter

Mission Specialist: Amedeo Trevisani (ESA)

Expedition Freedom 1 departs later the same month.

Discovery

US Lab Discovery

Launched May, 1989

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: US Lab module “Discovery”

Uncrewed

S1 Truss

Launched June, 1989

LV: Saturn Multibody H03

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: S1 Truss

Uncrewed

Columbus

ESA Lab Columbus

Launched July, 1989

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: ESA Lab module “Columbus”

Uncrewed

Freedom Expedition 3

Launched August, 1989

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

Crew: ???

Freedom declared to be at Initial Operational Capacity.

Freedom Expedition 4

Launched October, 1989

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

Commander: ?? Pilot: ?? Mission Specialist: Doug MacKay (CSA) + 2 others

Freedom Expedition 2 returns home.

Node 2 “Harmony” + Cupola

Node 2 Harmony

Launched March, 1990

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Node 2 “Harmony” + Cupola

Uncrewed

Freedom Expedition 5

Launched January, 1990

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

Crew: ??

Freedom Expedition 3 returns.

Minotaur 1

Minotaur

Launched May, 1990

LV: Europa 42u

Launch Site: Kourou

Spacecraft: Minotaur “Jules Verne”

Uncrewed

Freedom Expedition 6

Launched April, 1990

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

Crew: ??

Freedom Expedition 4 returns.

Freedom Expedition 7

Launched July, 1990

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

Commander: Chris Valente

Pilot: ??

Mission Specialist: Nancy MacDonald

Mission Specialist: Pierre Martin (ESA)

Mission Specialist: ??

Freedom Expedition 5 returns.

P2 Truss

Launched August, 1990

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: P2 Outboard Truss

Uncrewed

Freedom Expedition 8

Launched October, 1990

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

Crew: ??

Freedom Expedition 6 returns.

Centrifuge Gravity Lab

Centrifuge Gravity Lab

Launched November, 1990

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Centrifuge Gravity Lab

Uncrewed

Freedom Expedition 9

Launched January, 1991

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

Crew: ??

Freedom Expedition 7 returns.

S2 Truss

Launched February, 1991

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: S2 Outboard Truss

Uncrewed

Freedom Expedition 10

Launched April, 1991

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

Crew: ??

Freedom Expedition 8 returns.

Japanese Lab “Kibo”

Japanese Lab “Kibo”

Launched June, 1991

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center

Spacecraft: Japanese Lab “Kibo”

Uncrewed

Freedom at Full Operational Capacity

Freedom Expedition 20

Launched: October, 1993

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Flight Scientist 1: Peggy Barnes

Notes: Peggy Barnes’ final spaceflight before retirement. Her stint on the station would include the Outer Space Premier screening of Star Trek: Eternal Conflict in early 1994.

Freedom Expedition 22

Launched: April, 1994

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Commander: Gerald Mitchell

Freedom Expedition 23

Launched: July, 1994

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Commander: Maxwell Quick

Flight Scientist 1: Beverly McDowell

Flight Scientist 2: Edward Boxall (ESA)

Notes: Along with Gerald Mitchell, Quick and McDowell formed the “LEO Trio” band.

Freedom Expedition 24

Launched: October, 1994

Spacecraft: Apollo Block IV

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Flight Scientist 1: Andrei Orlov (RKA)

Notes: First visit of a Russian cosmonaut to Freedom. Orlov on guitar replaces Mitchell in the “LEO Trio” to perform for Thanksgiving.

Freedom Expedition 32

Launched: September, 1996

Spacecraft: Apollo Block V

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Pilot: Natalie Duncan

Notes: First manned flight for Apollo Block V, carrying a crew of 2 on a week-long stay at Freedom. The Apollo used a Block IV Mission Module. This mission carried an IMAX camera system to the station used in filming The Dream is Alive on station. Duncan was the first female graduate of NASA’s pilot training scheme.

Freedom Expedition 42

Launched: January 19th, 1999

Spacecraft: Apollo Block V

LV: Saturn Multibody M02

Commander: Adams

Notes: Launch of this mission freed ground crews for preparation of the Artemis 4 crew launch.

Artemis Program

Project Artemis

Note: This section includes dedicated Artemis missions only. Missions to Freedom, are included under the Freedom Expedition section.

Artemis 1

Launched: March 1996

Spacecraft: Apollo Block V

LV: Saturn M02

Crew: none

Notes: First uncrewed test flight of Apollo Block V. No Mission Module was carried. The flight used a highly eccentric Earth orbit to practice the skip re-entry technique at near lunar return speeds.

Pegasus First Flight

Launched: October 1997

Spacecraft: Pegasus

LV: Saturn M02

Crew: none

Notes: First test flight of the Pegasus upper stage, partially fueled as a Saturn M02 3rd stage. Pegasus successfully boosted itself into a heliocentric orbit.

Artemis 2

Launched: February 1998

Spacecraft: Pegasus, Artemis Descent Stage + Surface Hab

LV: Saturn H03

Crew: none

Notes: First uncrewed test flight of Artemis Descent Stage and Hab in Earth orbit. The flight tested repeated docking and undockings between the lander and Pegasus, as well as testing engines and making repeated passes through the Van Allen belts to verify radiation resistance.

Artemis 3

Launched: June 1998

Spacecraft: Pegasus, Artemis Descent Stage + Artemis Ascent Stage, Apollo Block V

LV: Saturn H03

Crew: 4

Commander: Jack Bailey

CM Pilot: Chris Valente

+2 other pilot-trained astronauts.

Notes: Conducted extensive tests of all mission components in Earth orbit.

Artemis 4A

Launched: November 27, 1998

Spacecraft: Pegasus, Artemis Cargo Lander “Janus”

LV: Saturn H03

Crew: none

Notes: Combined test/operational mission, deployed the cargo/habitat lander “Janus” to Oceanus Procellarum, close to the Apollo 12 and Surveyor 3 landing sites.

Artemis 4B

Launched: March 21, 1999

Spacecraft: Pegasus

LV: Saturn H03

Crew: none

Notes: Launch delayed 1 day by high-level winds. Launched the Pegasus for the Artemis 4 crew mission.

Artemis 4C

Launched: March 21, 1999

Spacecraft: Apollo Block V CSM “Enterprise”, Artemis Crew Lander “Galileo”

LV: Saturn H03

Commander: Don Hunt

Pilot: Natalie Duncan

Mission Science Officer: Ed Keeler

Partner Astronaut: Luka Seleznev

Notes: First human landing on the Moon since Apollo 18 in 1973. Duncan became the first woman on the Moon, on her second mission. Seleznev became the first Russian and first non-American on the Moon. Hunt became the oldest astronaut to walk on the Moon at 49. This was Hunt's final mission.

Mir Program

Note on Mir mission numbering: Due to the less regular rotation schedule of Soviet/Russian expeditions compared to their US counterparts, the numbering convention adopted is YYx, where YY is a 2-digit identifier for the year of the launch (e.g. 90 = 1990) and x is a letter distinguishing between missions in the same year, assigned sequentially based on when the mission is mentioned in Eyes Turned Skywards (note that this is not necessarily the same as the chronological order).

Mir Expedition 92a

Launched: November, 1992

Spacecraft: TKS

LV: Vulkan

Crew member 3: Anil Korrapati (ISRO)

Notes: First visit of an Indian cosmonaut to Mir. This mission returned Mir to a 6-person crew.

Mir Expedition 93a

Launched: 1993

Spacecraft: TKS

LV: Vulkan

Crew member 3: (ISRO cosmonaut)

Mir Expedition 93b

Launched: 1993

Spacecraft: TKS

LV: Vulkan

Crew member 3: (ISRO cosmonaut)

Mir Expedition 94a

Launched: July, 1994

Spacecraft: TKS

LV: Vulkan

Crew member 3: (Chinese cosmonaut)

Notes: First Chinese in space. Helped to prepare the station for the arrival of the Tiangong module in 1995.

Mir Expedition 94b

Launched: 1994 (between July and November)

Spacecraft: TKS

LV: Vulkan

Crew member 3: (Chinese cosmonaut)

Notes: Second Chinese in space.

Mir Expedition 94c

Launched: November, 1994

Spacecraft: TKS

LV: Vulkan

Crew member 3: Ryan Little (NASA)

Notes: First American to launch on a Russian vehicle, first to visit Mir. The mission brings Mir to a full 9-person crew (6 Russian, 2 Chinese, 1 US).

Mir Expedition 97a

Launched: 1997

Spacecraft: Longxing

LV: Long March 2F

Crew: 2x Chinese, 1x RKA

Notes: The start of annual Chinese flights to Mir-Tiangong, carrying a Russian cosmonaut as part of a bartering arrangement. Missions last between 3-6 months.

Lóngxīng Program

Note: This section includes free-flights of Longxing. Missions to Mir-Tiangong are included under the Mir Expedition section.

Longxing 1

Launched: 1994

Spacecraft: Longxing

LV: Long March 2F

Crew: None

Notes: First uncrewed test flight of Longxing.

Longxing 2

Launched: 1994?

Spacecraft: Longxing

LV: Long March 2F

Crew: Animal test subjects.

Notes: Second uncrewed test flight of Longxing. Mission duration was 21 hours, covering 14 orbits.

Longxing 3

Launched: September 1995

Spacecraft: Longxing

LV: Long March 2F

Crew: Xiaosi Chen

Notes: First native-launched Chinese in space.

Viking Program

Greater available budgets mean that the “Wolf Trap” device is not canceled as IOTL. This leads to Wolf Vishniac living at least through the early 1980s, as per Post 4. However, Viking still fails to find life.

Viking 1

Tritonis Lacus, OTL an alternate landing site for the Viking 1 lander (located at 20Nx246W), is ITTL selected as the primary site (rather than Chryse Planitia). Since it is not as rugged as the OTL site, landing go-ahead is given immediately, and the probe is able to touch down on July 4th, 1976, as originally planned. The touchdown therefore forms part of NASA's bicentennial activities.

Voyager Program

Additional funding leads to four Voyager probes being approved for development, rather than two. Voyagers 1 and 2 are launched on the Jupiter-Saturn-Pluto trajectory in 1977; Voyagers 3 and 4 on the Jupiter-Uranus-Neptune trajectory in 1979. Voyager 1 is diverted to do a close flyby of Titan, but the results convince everyone that Voyager 2 should not be so diverted, and it continues on towards Pluto. Sadly the Voyager 3's mission end in 1986, after Uranus flyby as it radio transmitters failed.

See Part II:Post 5 and Part II:Post 11 for more detail

See Also

timelines/mission_list.txt · Last modified: 2014/04/07 05:40 by nixonshead