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January - Though the Dutch Republic itself may be lost, Dutch forces under Hendrik van Nieuwenhuizen and Admiral de Vries complete their conquest of the Portuguese Brazilian region of Maranhão and reign supreme.
February - Start of the Congress of Brünn, which decides the outcome of the Saxon/Polish-Austrian war.
The naval Battle of Bornholm is fought between the Danes under Admiral Vilhelm Polder and the Russians under Admiral Nikolai Senyavin. Although the latter Swedish Civil War mostly saw minor Danish naval victories over the Russians, this battle is the only one popularly remembered, and it is a Russian victory. Senyavin is noted for using new tactics and technologies to his advantage, including the new skalpel (scalpel) rifled cannon capable of penetrating Danish steamships' armoured boilers.
March - The Kingdom of the Three Sicilies is officially proclaimed as a single unitary state.
As a gesture of goodwill, the Saxons formally hand Henry Frederick of Prussia back over to Wilhelm von der Trenck and his remaining supporters in Hanover. Henry Frederick has abdicated all claims to the Prussian throne and wishes to create a new life for himself. He leads his remaining Prussian troops with the Hanoverians in an attack on the VRD, which is disintegrating thanks to civil war between supporters of Dornberger and Brüning.
Portuguese and Meridian negotiators meet on the Azores and sign the Treaty of Angra, known in Portugal as the Tearful Treaty. This dismembers Portuguese Brazil, creating the Meridian puppet states of the Cisplatine, Riograndense and Pernambuco Republics, awards much of the interior (notionally) to the UPSA and New Spain, and leaves Portugal with less than half (albeit the most valuable parts) of pre-war Brazil.
April - The Congress of Brünn concludes. Bohemia (and Silesia) becomes a kingdom under Augustus II of Saxony's brother Xavier Albert, as Albert II–finally receiving a royal dignity on his third attempt after Poland and Bavaria. The Austrians actually retain a sizeable remnant of the former definition of Bohemia. The Poles gain Krakau, Teschen and some other Galician and Silesian territory. The status of Bavaria remains undecided until the Congress of Brussels two years later: in the meantime it is officially a Saxon-Austrian condominium, and in practice subject to total anarchy.
May - Russian winter soldiers (made up largely of penal battalions comprised of Constantine supporters from the late civil war) occupy Finnmark in northern Norway.
Around this time the last bandits and rogue mercenaries in Britain left over from the Inglorious Revolution are subdued by government forces.
June - With the Flemings having overrun the bulk of the Dutch Republic, Oren Scherman attempts to betray his supporters and escape. However, Manfred Landau–having learned that Scherman had ordered his death–takes his men and some of Admiral Forgues' elite soldiers and garottes Scherman in the night. Forgues allows Landau and his men to take the remaining ships and flee to the UPSA as he wants. Forgues also rescues Stadtholder William VII from where Scherman had had him under house arrest (and, it is suspected, abused him).
July - A Russian / Stockholm Conspiracy attack on Trondheim is bloodily repulsed by Norwegian militiamen. The Battle of Trondheim will be an iconic moment in the development of Norwegian nationalism.
Marshal Forgues surrenders to the Flemish Army in Groningen. The Flemish conquest of the Dutch Republic is now complete.
August - Battle of Gävle in Sweden, with a Danish offensive being halted by Russian and Stockholm Conspiracy forces.
End of the Franco-Italian “Nightmare War” with the Peace of Cuneo. The peace is largely in the French's favour, restoring the pre-1794 border, but is far less dramatic than many considered that such a bloody conflict would produce. Both countries wish to focus on their other enemies or rivals–France on Flanders and Italy on Naples and the Saxons. As part of the agreement, France expels Victor Felix of Sardinia, who ends up in the Bernese Republic.
September - Battle of Karlstad in Sweden. The Russians and their Stockholm Conspiracy allies throw back the Danish army. This reversal, coupled to the problem of residual Schmidtists in Danish Germany and the fact that Denmark still holds most of the richest and most valuables parts of Sweden, encourages the Danish government to consider ending the war.
The “Damascene Conversion” of Wilhelm Brüning. Brüning had become frustrated and depressed with how successful his opponent Dornberger had been in trying to seize control of the divided VRD, having witnessed people assuming Dornberger was Schmidt thanks to previously acting as his 'voice', and happily believing the charismatic Dornberger when he claimed Schmidt said things quite contrary to what Schmidt had recorded in the books and pamphlets anyone could read. This makes Brüning doubt his democratic principles that the people are worthy to rule themselves, and together with a pragmatic reading of his endangered position, he decides to go over to the Hanoverians and their Saxon allies. He assists them in crushing the VRD remnant under Dornberger.
Having ended the Italian front of the war, Bonaparte sends the now freed-up troops to join the war against Flanders. However he miscalculates, with many men traumatised by the 'Nightmare War' and driven to breaking point by this new round.
Frederick II of Great Britain returns to London after touring his ravaged country, being shocked by the damage of the civil war and helping rebuild his support among the common people. Having gauged the mood of the country to be restless and wishing to appease radical political interests, Frederick informs the Privy Council that he favours an election held under universal suffrage and the secret ballot.
October - Death of Michael Elchingener. Having so long dominated Swabian politics, his death throws the court into a flux and leads to the reluctant decision by King Frederick IV that the territories ruled by the Confederation Society cannot be regained.
William Wyndham, who opposes King Frederick's proposed universal suffrage election, is approached by an establishment group known as the Bond Street Conspiracy, who want his support to launch a coup against the radicals. Wyndham agrees to everything they say, then leaves and immediately calls upon Llewelyn Thomas and his militia to arrest all the conspirators. The incident makes both Wyndham's reputation of incorruptible loyality and Thomas' of decisive action.
The Empire of New Spain sends fleets to the Philippines and Castilian Formosa. The colonies are handed over by their former Portuguese overlords.
November - An ill-judged French attack aimed at Liége is bloodily repulsed by the Flemings, who are well dug in there. A particularly iconic moment of horror is when French troops accidentally kill Walloon refugees fleeing the Flemings.
December - Peace of Vilnius between Russia / Stockholm Conspiracy Sweden and Denmark / Loyalist Sweden. The peace is motivated by Denmark wishing to concentrate on German affairs, observing the Saxons shifting the makeup of postwar Germany to their liking and wishing to intervene. The peace leaves the status of Sweden deliberately vague and this will not be definitively settled until the Congress of Brussels. The loyalist Swedish government governs from Stockholm, while (ironically) the Stockholm Conspiracy claims to govern from Upsala, but in practice from Helsingfors.
January - The formal end of the “Swiss War”, with the Treaty of Zürich, though the battle lines had not moved for months in any case: Swabia surrenders almost half of her former Swiss territories to the new Switzerland of the Confederation Society, which becomes known as the “Bernese Republic”. John Byron III decides to settle there and writes many iconic works romanticising the 'Old Switzerland, most notably The White Mountains.
Bonaparte visits a field hospital on the Flemish Front nd is shocked by the horrors of modern warfare, making him reconsider his position. This together with public discontent over the course of the war and criticism from the Triumvirate leads him to pursue peace.
February - Albert Dornberger is killed, impaled on a Saxon bayonet–an image which will become iconic in neo-Schmidtist movements later on. With his death the VRD, already on its last legs, effectively ceases to exist.
Even an Optel message from Maximilian II of Flanders agreeing for a ceasefire arrives, Bonaparte dies at the age of 70 from heart failure caused by overwork.
March - André Malraux resigns from the Triumvirate, saying the time of national crisis has now passed, and calls for fresh elections and peace with Flanders. Bleu and Blanc leaders Claude Devigny and Émile Perrier reject this and vow to continue the war. Although the Blancs are the larger party in the Grand-Parlement, the King's continued refusal to deal with Perrier means that Devigny becomes Prime Minister as a compromise. He launches a new offensive against Flanders, dubbed the offensive parthe (Parthian Offensive) as it is the parting shot. His intention is to claim all of Wallonia (against criticism of Bonaparte having 'abandoned' the Walloons) and win patriotic votes from those he fears would otherwise support the Rouges.
April - End of the Parthian Offensive in disaster, with little territory captured and many lives spent. The Dutch Stadtholder William VII even urges his people to support the Flemings against the French. Low morale on the exhausted French's part, while the Flemings are fighting in the defence of their own country, and the two sides being evenly matched in technology and tactics, all play a part in the defeat. There are rumours of French mutinies and Charles IV of Spain, viewing France's weakness, starts making noises about adjusting the Franco-Spanish border. In response to all this, even Devigny throws in the towel and calls for peace.
May - Great Britain holds one of the most dramatic and important elections in her history, spread over two weeks in May and June. For the first time, every adult man can cast a vote, and that vote is secret. However, the old constituencies and political system are still used, so most constituencies have two seats with both the winner and runner-up being elected.
June - The results of Great Britain's election are remarkable but initially misunderstood. The Whig label is made virtually meaningless overnight with almost all identifying with it failing to win seats, Wyndham's New Tories do impressively well, the Phoenix Party surprisingly holds onto a fair few seats, but a huge majority is won by what commentators initially see–mistakenly–as a unified group of Radicals and Radical-leaning independents. David Thompson, leader of the titular Radical Party, becomes Prime Minister and attempts to govern.
July - The Kingdom of the Three Sicilies adopts a new simplified flag, a horizontal tricolour of red, yellow and blue.
August - The long, awkward business of the Congress of Brussels opens in an attempt to make sense of the Popular Wars and create a postwar European settlement.
In Great Britain the Thompson Ministry collapses after barely a month, with the “Purple Radicals” from working-class societies being unimpressed with the lukewarm and often overly idealistic policies of Thompson and the bourgeois “Green Radicals”. The backbench Purples vote down Thompson's budget. The King suggests the Radical group elect their own leader rather than have him choose a new Prime Minister, which leads to the surprise of Llewelyn Thomas (rather than the more erudite Purple leaders such as Peter Baker) becoming leader and Prime Minister. Thompson, his lieutenant Hartington and their Green supporters officially break with the Purples; the latter become known as the People's Alliance or Populist Party.
October - Death of King Gabriel of New Spain. He is succeeded by his son Francis, who adopts more moderate policies looking towards the UPSA, and follows through on some of the agreements with the Meridians relaxing restrictions on the Tahuantinsuya that his father had dragged his heels on.
November - Recognising that the Dutch East and West India Companies (VOC and GWC) had become unpopular with the Dutch people, Maximilian II proclaims their nationalisation and merger with the Ostend Company, effectively declaring his intent to seize Dutch colonies around the world. The Lords Seventeen of the VOC refuse this and several of them escape to the colonies.
January - The Anglo-French inventor Joseph Lardent first demonstrates a steerable (dirigible balloon) that incorporates a small steam engine as the power source. Though his demonstration is impressive, economies of scale mean the project remains only a curiosity for the moment.
March - As part of the negotiations at the Congress of Brussels, the Danes trade Danzig to Poland in exchange for Brandenburg-Stettin, which was Polish-occupied.
April - One of the most contentious issues of the Popular Wars is resolved at the Congress of Brussels, with Bavaria being made an independent kingdom under Victor Felix of the House of Savoy, who becomes Victor I.
May - The “Maucler Letter” is published–a fake, but supposedly based on real events, it claims that the French diplomats at Brussels tried to trade away part of Lorraine to Swabia. The letter is used by Rouge Party propagandists, with many ordinary people and veterans furious at the Blanc-Bleu establishment casually trading away lands they suffered and died to conquer. Resentment flows through France, building to a crescendo.
June - After almost a year of tense negotiations, the Congress of Brussels concludes. The Europe of the Democratic Experiment era has been constructed.
July - The French Army mutinies, partly due to the Maucler Letter but mostly due to rumours that the government is planning to cut their war pensions. Encamped mutineers are met by King Charles X at Beauvais, and he shocks the world by bowing to them and making July 12th “the Soldiers' Day”, on which all Frenchmen, aristocrats or no, must defer to veterans. He also gives veterans the right to vote, effectively defusing the crisis.
August - King Charles X dissolves the French Grand-Parlement and calls a fresh election. In what is confusingly known as the “Blue Election” (due to blue-uniformed soldiers voting), the Bleus and Blancs are crushed and André Malraux becomes Prime Minister, leading the Rouges as France's first majority government. The People's Kingdom period begins.
September - Governor of the Cape Colony Adriaan Rhenius, hearing of the loss of the Dutch Republic, proclaims the continuation of the Republic in exile. His intention is to rule all the exilic Dutch colonies worldwide from Kaapstad, but this proves unsuccessful and the state he founds becomes known as the Cape Republic.
October - The Portuguese, having licked their wounds after their defeats in the Popular Wars, send an expeditionary force to Guyana to try and reconquer the country from the exilic Dutch. The new French government, in response to both this and Maximilian II's nationalisation of the VOC and GWC, proclaims the Malraux Doctrine and warns it will help defend the exilic Dutch around the world, though initially just through supplying weapons.
January - In a massive shock, the secret provisions of the Treaty of Lima are revealed and the price the New Spanish paid for Meridian help in the Reconquista becomes apparent: Meridian fleets arrive in Spanish Formosa and the Philippines and the Spanish hand over both colonies to the UPSA. Rather than becoming formal Meridian territory, the “Adamantine Philippine Company” is chartered to rule over them.
February - Election in the UPSA. Riding the success of the acquisition of the former Spanish Pacific colonies, Rámon Almada, the Adamantine candidate, is elected in the first round with 51%. The Colorado candidate comes in second and the Amarillo in third. This result causes the Amarillos to reorganise and modernise themselves, while the Colorados become complacent.
March - David Levitin, leader of the exilic Crimean Jews in Sinope, is persuaded to be crowned “David II of the Kingdom of Israel in exile”. Abdul Hadi Pasha and the Sultan attend the coronation.
April - Sultan Amangkurat V of Mataram, having bided his time during the Popular Wars, chooses the Dutch's moment of weakness to launch his war of reconquest in an attempt to expel the Dutch from Java. His Portuguese-trained army inflicts several defeats on the exilic Dutch forces there.
September - Pablo Sanchez leaves Spain and emigrates to the UPSA, the country whose future he will go on to define.
February - The Portuguese give up their failed attempt to reconquer Guyana and withdraw.
May - The exilic Dutch in Guyana, having defeated the Portuguese with unofficial help from France and the UPSA, proclaim the Guyana Republic. The ramshackle state is in the shared sphere of influence of both the UPSA and New Spain.
February - New Granadine writer Rodrigo Campos publishes Política, in which he formalises and defines the Meridian-derived “Metallic Spectrum” for describing political positions (doradist, argentist, cobrist). However these terms had already been in common circulation for many years.
June - Oldenburg is made into an exclave of Billungia rather than a colonial possession of Denmark / Scandinavia.
March - The New Tynwald on the Isle of Man votes to make the island a republic, severing all links with the British monarchy.
June - Formation of the Isolationsgebiet.
July - Flanders dispatches a large naval force to the Cape Republic in an attempt to seize it.
February - Flemish forces successfully take Kaapstad from the Cape Republic exilic Dutch. However, this does not result in the surrender of the Republic as they had hoped. Adriaan Rhenius shifts the capital to Orangestad and the Dutch exiles successfully resist Fleming expansion over the following years, restricting them only to the western Cape. The Cape becomes divided between the Flemish colony in the west, the Cape Republic in the middle and the Americans in Natal in the east.
March - American writer Errol Robinson publishes The Venator, the first of a new wave of Automaton Literature following the upheavals of the Popular Wars, and drawing on new themes of the dilemmas of identity–it stars an automaton employed to hunt down others of its rebellious kind on human orders.
May - End of the Java War, with Amangkurat V's Sultanate of Mataram having reconquered considerable territories and reduced the Dutch to only the western half of the island, though not succeeding in Amangkurat's ultimate dream of expelling them altogether.
September - The remaining Dutch in Java and the rest of the East Indies proclaim the Batavian Republic, led by Hendrik Cuypers.
August - Following a scandal over the largely lawless former penal colony being hijacked as a base by Barbary pirates preying on American shipping, the General Court of New England agrees to annex Cloudsborough (northern Newfoundland) to the Confederation of New England as a non-voting territory.
June - David Lockwood publishes Play Up And Play the Game, a satire of Eton and other British public schools set in the 'good old days' before the Jacobin Wars. The book proves quite popular, and is the origin of the idiom “Ponsonby Minorism”: Ponsonby Minor is the smallest and one of the youngest boys in the school and is bullied by bigger and older boys, initially making him a sympathetic character. However as soon as an even younger and smaller boy joins the school, Ponsonby Minor promptly joins the others in bullying him. The point is that people in a bad situation can remain content if there is nonetheless someone even worse off they can look down on.